The establishment of Republic of China’s (R.O.C) police force dated back to 1907 when the Qing Dynasty government located a police department in each province to take charge of provincial police affairs. When the R.O.C was founded in 1912, the central government established the National Police Headquarters under the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) to supervise national police affairs. A police department was established in the nation’s capital, a provincial police administration in each province, a police department in each province’s capital and trading port, and a police station in each county. When the provincial government relocated to Taiwan in August 1949, the Taiwan Provincial Police Administration was established under the Ministry of the Interior to take charge of national police affairs.
The National Police Headquarters was reorganized as the National Police Agency (NPA) on July 5, 1972 and shared the same headquarters with the Taiwan Provincial Police Administration to streamline its organization and cut costs. On May 1,1995, Taiwan Provincial Police Administration was separated from the NPA and relocated to Taichung City. On July 1, 1999, Taiwan Provincial Police Administration became history after being merged into the NPA due to the downsizing of the provincial government.
From 1992 to 2007, the National Police Agency (NPA) underwent organizational restructuring. Tasks such as household registration (1992), firefighting and disaster rescue (1995), maritime police (2000), aerial police (2004), and immigration management (2007) were respectively transferred to the Department of Household Registration, National Fire Agency, Executive Yuan’s Coast Guard Administration(restructured as Ocean Affairs Council’s Coast Guard Administration in 2018), Ministry of the Interior’s National Airborne Service Corps, and the Entry and Exit, and Immigration Agency (restructured as the National Immigration Agency in 2015), respectively. In 2014, the NPA went through yet another reorganization in line with the central government’s streamlining policy to downsize its organization to focus on 2 major areas including crime-fighting and traffic enforcement.